How to Grow Cucumbers

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Be successful growing cucumber plants: cunning tips for cucumbers

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant and is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Other members of the family include watermelon and cantaloupe, squashes including summer squash, winter squash, courgette (zucchini) and pumpkin. Cucumbers have not received as much press as other vegetables in terms of their overall nutrient richness, but this long-beloved food provides us with a unique combination of conventional nutrients and phytonutrients.

Cucumber plants are far more versatile than you might imagine. Their mild, slightly sweet flavor makes them the perfect palate for many dishes – Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, you name it!

Cucumber Varieties

Cucumbers are a creeping vine that bears fruits. From a biological standpoint, cucumbers are actually fruits, not vegetables. (Fruits are parts of flowering plants that come from the ovary.). There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and seedless. The slicing types are long and usually grow to about 6 or 8 inches in length while the pickling types are shorter, reaching around 3 to 4 inches once mature. Seedless types of cucumbers arise through a natural process called parthenogenesis, cucumber plants can fruit without pollen. In the absence of pollen, seeds do not develop in the fruit. While some people have a personal preference for seedless cucumbers and melons, it’s worth remembering that cucumber seeds are rich source of phytonutrients that may not be found in anywhere close to the same amount in the skin or flesh.

Growing cucumbers in pots

There are now many bush or compact varieties of cucumbers available that are ideal for growing in pots. Cucumbers can grow in two different forms: vines and bushes. Vines need a fence or trellis to climb up on, while bushes are more compact and grow in one spot. If you have the space, vine cucumbers yield a higher harvest, but bush cucumbers are better suited for smaller spaces and grow well in pots.

Burpless’ cucumbers are sweeter and lighter in taste – bred to contain low or no cucurbitacin compounds that causes bitterness. It was originally believed cucurbitacin or ‘bitterness’ increases ‘burping’ after eating the fruits.

Sometimes “gherkin” is used to refer to small cucumbers and pickles but the term “gherkin” can also be used to describe a cucumber variety that comes from a different species of plant (Cucumis anguiria). The Gherkin is a small fruited type of Cucumber, and is used for pickling. Ordinary Cucumbers are also often picked small for this purpose.

How to plant cucumbers

Cucumbers are one of the most popular salad vegetables that we grow in our gardens and are one of the easiest plants you can grow as they require minimal effort on your part. Plant where they will get full sun but in hot climate afternoon shade is best. Cucumbers are planted in raised beds or in low mounds of soil (called ‘hills’), which improve drainage. Sow seeds, 2.5 cm deep in the raised soil, either directly in the position where the plants are intended to grow or for seedlings grown on a windowsill.

Cucumber plant spacing

Set Cucumber plants in their ”hills” six feet apart each way. When the plants have made three rough leaves, pinch out the leader to induce the lateral growths. These in turn should be pinched back to develop the fruit bearing laterals, and as soon as the fruit has formed pinch these back also at one or two joints beyond the fruit.

Cucumber plant care

Continue this treatment as long as necessary to increase the bearing productivity of the plants. Do not allow the fruit to remain on the plant once it is of proper size, for Cucumbers must be kept picked, otherwise bearing will cease. Pick any single early fruit to force a numerous growth. Liquid fertiliser applied to the plants when in full growth causes them to run to leaf, and will reduce the yield.

The Hardy Ridge variety is quite easy to grow in the open. Sow the seed in pots and keep on the window sill indoors until safe to plant outdoors. Cucumbers thrive on rich, fertile and well-drained soil. And one of the best ways to provide that is to add in generous amounts of compost at planting time. Homemade compost is the perfect soil additive for growing healthy cucumber plants. It’s rich, nutrient-filled humus provides a big boost for plants. But it also helps to retain moisture to the roots too.

Plant cucumbers as a catch crop between greens and other crops. When the little cucumbers are formed, pinch off the end of the vine. Outdoor cucumbers are very prolific, and of quite a different flavour from those grown in greenhouses. While warm temperatures are required for growing, cucumbers require a relatively short season–55 to 60 days from sowing to harvest.

Cucumber Growing Tips

  • Select hardy, disease-resistant outdoor varieties – they are less fussy than greenhouse types
  • Keep soil evenly moist to prevent the fruit from becoming bitter
  • Mulch cucumber plants heavily
  • A scoop of well-rotted manure gets cucumber seedlings off to a good start
  • Avoid watering on leaves as cucumbers are prone to mildew
  • harvest regularly to keep plants producing at peak levels

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